Policy arena effect
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Policy arena refers to governance of new applications science and technology, and arena effect is a concept for describing different approaches that this governance can take. The arena can be divided into four different areas according to two different dimensions: 1) actor induced: placid arenas or polarised arenas; 2) institutional: hierarchical arenas of participatory arenas. This typology has been developed by Mikko Rask. 
The arena effect relates to the ida of different knowledge production modes introduced by Gibbons et al, 2000. Mode 1 is the traditional knowledge production context, while mode 2 is institutionally distributed, produced in a context of application, problem-driven, and transdisciplinary.
|Hierarchic||Mountain massif "Arena stabilized"||Volcano "Arena alarmed"|
|Participatory||Prairie "Arena expanded"||Rapids "Arena floated"|
- Mikko Rask: Expansion of expertise in the governance of science and technology. Dissertations of the National Consumer Research Centre 4, Helsinki, 2008. ISBN 978-951-698-187-4